Environmental Values 14(2005): 83-112. doi: 10.3197/0963271053306096
This article is building the theory for the scientific field of industrial ecology. For this, the industrial ecosystem (IE) concept is used. IE uses the model of sustainable ecosystems in unsustainable industrial systems for making progress towards the vision of the industrial ecosystem. Six controversies are revealed and identified as research challenges. I invite all those who are interested in industrial ecology to respond to this contribution.
KEYWORDS: Sustainable development, industrial ecology, industrial ecosystem, controversies, theory building
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